7,526,190 unique visits
Navigation
General chapters
Introduction
The 2002 Checklist (introduction)
History of Dutch lists
Applications of the list
Contributors
Bibliography
Families
Contact
Message to Webmaster
Select family
Users Online
Guests Online: 2

Members Online: 0

Total Members: 2
Newest Member: tester
Login
Username

Password



Not a member yet?
Click here to register.

Forgotten your password?
Request a new one here.
Forum Threads
Newest Threads
No Threads created
Hottest Threads
No Threads created
FAMILY SCIARIDAE
Frank Menzel Version date: 10-09-2014 20:58

Bradysia bicolor (Meigen, 1818)
Diagnosis. Sciaridae are small flies, mostly 1.0-8.0 mm in size and of uniform appearance. Palaearctic species uniformly brown or dark-bodied with exception of some species of Bradysia, Corynoptera, Ctenosciara, Lycoriella or Phytosciara that may have yellow parts on the scutum, pleural sclerites, and base of the antennae or bicolorous necks of the antennal flagellar segments. They are 'nimble runners' and relatively 'weak fliers'. Head with 16-segmented antennae; compound eyes usually forming a dorsal bridge in front of the ocelli (absent only in some species with more or less reduced wings). Wing venation quite characteristic for all species: costa short and ending between R5 and M1; M and CuA both forked, and only one cross vein (r-m). These defining characteristics easily distinguish the Sciaridae from the Mycetophilidae s. l. The presence of spurs at the apex of the tibiae distinguishes them from the cecidomyiid subfamily Lestremiinae.

Biology. The family Sciaridae is found on every continent and is characterised by its high number of species and of individuals. Larvae occupy the decomposition layer of the soil (ground litter), can be found under the bark of decaying, rotten trees, develop in fungi (fruiting bodies, mycelia), or mine in the stems and leaves of herbaceous plants. A sample of 1 m2 of soil in open country side produced up to 2,600 larvae, and in mushroom cultures up to 200,000 larvae of a single species. The roots of a plant have commonly produced larval densities of 20 to 80 individuals, and a plant stem between 220 and 800 individuals. Under optimal conditions there can be up to nine generations per year. Mass occurrences are not uncommon and can cause extensive damage in forestry and agriculture as well as significant losses in production. Sciaridae play a significant role in the natural system, as decomposers of animal and plant refuse and as the food of other predatory animal groups (e.g. nematodes, predaceous insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds).

General references. Freeman (1983 [general, keys]), Gerbachevskaja-Pavluchenko (1986 [catalogue]), Heller (2012 [Leptosciarella pilosa species group]), Hippa & Vilkamaa (1994 [Camptochaeta, Corynoptera partim], 2004 [Xylosciara]), Hippa et al. (2003 [Claustropyga]), Hippa et al. (2010 [Corynoptera s.str.]), Menzel (1998 [checklist of British species], 2000 [checklist of German species, analyses of the European and Palaearctic fauna]), Menzel & Mohrig (1997a [general, key to genera], 1997b [Trichosia], 2000 [general, classification, phylogeny, zoogeography, keys to genera, subgenera, and species groups, checklist of Palaearctic species]), Mohrig (1993 [Corynoptera partim]), Mohrig & Menzel (1993 [Bradysia partim], 1994 [Phytosciara], 1997 [Leptosciarella]), Tuomikoski (1960 [keys]), Vilkamaa & Hippa (2005 [Peyerimhoffia]).

References to the local fauna. Broekhuizen (1938), Van Bruggen (1954), Gerbachevskaja-Pavluchenko (1986), Heller (2011), Heller & Menzel (2004), Hippa et al. (2010), Lempke (1962), De Meijere (1907, 1939b, 1946a, 1950a), Menzel & Mohrig (1997b, 2000), Menzel et al. (2011), Mohrig (1996), Van Rossem (1954), Van Rossem et al. (1970, 1981), Van der Wulp & De Meijere (1898).
 
Remarks. Species numbers for Belgium are revised after data by Gerbachevskaja-Pavluchenko (1986), Collart (1934, 1936), Gosseries (1991), Leclercq (1944), and Van de Steene & Overstijns (1981), for Germany after data by Menzel (2000) and in the world from Menzel & Mohrig (2000).
Classification, nomenclature and systematics following Menzel & Mohrig (2000).

How to quote this page: Menzel, F., 2014. Family Sciaridae. In: Beuk, P.L.Th. (Ed.): Checklist of the Diptera of the Netherlands, http://www.diptera-info.nl/news.php?fam=Sciaridae (date accessed: 16/10/2019).

NL: 123, 3? UK: 52 D: 123, 3? B: 266 World: 1848
 
SCIARIDAE
                 
  Bradysia Winnertz, 1867
  alpicola (Winnertz, 1867) Note 1
  = morio (Fabricius, 1794): misident. sensu Zetterstedt, 1851
  = lugubris (Winnertz, 1867): misident. sensu auct.
  bellstedti Mohrig & Wenzel, 1998 N; added as bellstedti Mohrig & Menzel (nomen nudum) by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  = procera Mohrig & Menzel, 1990: preocc.
  bicolor (Meigen, 1818)
  = rufiventris (Macquart, 1834)
  brevispina Tuomikoski, 1960 N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  cinerascens (Grzegorzek, 1884) N; added by Heller (2011: 173) 
  confinis (Winnertz, 1867) N; added by Heller (2011: 173) 
  difformis Frey, 1948 N; added as paupera by Van Rossem et al. (1981: 31
  = paupera Tuomikoski, 1960
  forficulata (Bezzi, 1914) N; added as nocturna by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203 Note 2
  = nocturna Tuomikoski, 1960
  fungicola (Winnertz, 1867) added by Heller (2011: 173) 
  giraudii (Egger, 1862)
  = giraudi Schiner, : incorrect spelling
  inusitata Tuomikoski, 1960 N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  nervosa (Meigen, 1818)
  = fucata (Meigen, 1818)
  = fuscata (Meigen, 1818): incorrect spelling
  = placida Winnertz, 1867: misident. sensu Van der Wulp & De Meijere, 1898
  nitidicollis (Meigen, 1818)
  = aprilina Meigen, 1818 Note 3
  = fenestrata (Meigen, 1818)
  = scatopsoides (Meigen, 1818)
  ocellaris (Comstock, 1882) N; added as prothalliorum by De Meijere (1946a: 5
  = prothalliorum (De Meijere, 1946)
  pallipes (Fabricius, 1787) Note 4
  = brunnipes (Meigen, 1804)
  = bruunipes (Meigen, 1804): incorrect spelling
  = umbratica (Zetterstedt, 1851)
  pectoralis (Staeger, 1840) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  peraffinis Tuomikoski, 1960 N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  placida (Winnertz, 1867) Note 5
  polonica (Lengersdorf, 1929) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  praecox (Meigen, 1818)
  regularis (Lengersdorf, 1934) N; added by Menzel et al. (2011: 195
  rufescens (Zetterstedt, 1852) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  scabricornis Tuomikoski, 1960 N; added as subscabricornis by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203 Note 6
  = subscabricornis Mohrig & Menzel, 1990
  signata (Winnertz, 1867) N; added by Heller (2011: 173) 
  strenua (Winnertz, 1867) N; added by Heller (2011: 173) 
  strigata (Staeger, 1840) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  tilicola (Loew, 1850) N; added as wendalinae by Van Bruggen (1954: 70 Note 7
  = modesta (Staeger, 1840): misident. sensu Lengersdorf, 1940
  = amoena (Winnertz, 1867) Note 8
  = wendalinae (Van Bruggen, 1954)
  trivittata (Staeger, 1840) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  vagans (Winnertz, 1868) N; added by Heller (2011: 173) 
                 
  Claustropyga Hippa, Vilkamaa & Mohrig, 2003
  abblanda (Freeman, 1983) N; added by Menzel et al. (2011: 196
  brevichaeta (Mohrig & Antonova, 1978) N; added by Heller (2011: 173
  heteroclausa (Rudzinski, 1991) N; added by Heller (2011: 173
                 
  Corynoptera Winnertz, 1867
  anae Mohrig & Heller, 1992 N; first recorded by Heller & Menzel (2004
  blanda (Winnertz, 1867) N; added by Menzel et al. (2011: 196
  dentiforceps (Bukowski & Lengersdorf, 1936) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  forcipata (Winnertz, 1867) N; added by Heller (2011: 173
  furcata (Hippa & Vilkamaa, 1994) N; added by Heller (2011: 173
  globiformis (Frey, 1945) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  inundata Fritz, 1982 N; added as recurvispina by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203 Note 9
  = recurvispina Freeman, 1987
  irmgardis (Lengersdorf, 1930) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  macricula Mohrig & Krivosheina, 1986 N; first recorded by Heller & Menzel (2004
  penna (Pettey, 1918) N; added as alneti by Menzel et al. (2011: 196 Note 10
  = alneti Hippa, Vilkamaa & Heller, 2010
  perpusilla Winnertz, 1867 N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  postglobiformis Mohrig, 1993 N; added by Heller (2011: 173
  quantula (Hippa & Vilkamaa, 1994) N; added by Heller (2011: 174
  saccata Tuomikoski, 1960 N; first recorded by Heller & Menzel (2004
  saetistyla Mohrig & Krivosheina, 1985 N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  sphenoptera Tuomikoski, 1960 N; first recorded by Heller & Menzel (2004
  subdentata Mohrig, 1985 N; added by Menzel et al. (2011: 196
  subparvula Tuomikoski, 1960 N; added by Heller (2011: 174
  subtilis (Lengersdorf, 1929) N; first recorded by Heller & Menzel (2004
  tetrachaeta Tuomikoski, 1960 N; first recorded by Heller & Menzel (2004
  trepida (Winnertz, 1867) N; added as subflava by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  = subflava (Lengersdorf, 1941)
  tumidula Hippa, Vilkamaa & Heller, 2010 N; added by Menzel et al. (2011: 196
  vagula Tuomikoski, 1960 N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  winnertzi Mohrig, 1993 N; added by Heller (2011: 174
                 
  Cosmosciara Frey, 1942
  perniciosa (Edwards, 1922) added by Van Rossem (1954: 248 Note 11
                 
  Cratyna Winnertz, 1867
  = Plastosciara Berg, 1899
  = Platosciara Berg, 1899: incorrect spelling
  subg. Cratyna Winnertz, 1867
  ambigua (Lengersdorf, 1934) N; added as latiforceps by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  = latiforceps (Bukowksi & Lengersdorf, 1936)
  atra Winnertz, 1867
  = belingi (Winnertz, 1869): misident. sensu De Meijere, 1907
  = pictiventris (Kieffer, 1898)
  uliginosa (Lengersdorf, 1929) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  subg. Diversicratyna Menzel & Mohrig, 1998
  spiculosa (Rudzinski, 1993) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  subg. Spathobdella Frey, 1948
  colei (Freeman, 1990) N; added as brachialis by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  = brachialis (Winnertz, 1867): misident. sensu Tuomikoski, 1960
  falcata (Tuomikoski, 1960) N; added by Heller (2011: 174
  falcifera (Lengersdorf, 1933) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
  nobilis (Winnertz, 1867)
  perplexa (Winnertz, 1867) N; added as perplexa by De Meijere (1950a: 4
  = socialis (Winnertz, 1871)
  = sociata (Winnertz, 1871): incorrect spelling
                 
  Ctenosciara Tuomikoski, 1960
  hyalipennis (Meigen, 1804)
  = annulata (Meigen, 1818)
  = autumnalis (Winnertz, 1867)
  lutea (Meigen, 1804)
                 
  Dolichosciara Tuomikoski, 1960 Note 12
  flavipes (Meigen, 1804)
                 
  Epidapus Haliday in Walker, 1851
  subg. Epidapus Haliday in Walker, 1851
  alnicola (Tuomikoski, 1957) N; added by Heller (2011: 174) and Menzel et al. (2011: 196
  atomarius (De Geer, 1778)
  = melina (Schmitz, 1915)
  gracilis (Walker, 1848) N; added by Heller (2011: 174) 
  subg. Pseudoaptanogyna Vimmer, 1926
  absconditus (Vimmer, 1926) N; added by Heller (2011: 174) 
                 
  Hyperlasion Schmitz, 1918
  wasmanni Schmitz, 1918
                 
  Leptosciarella Tuomikoski, 1960
  subg. Hirtipennia Mohrig & Menzel, 1997
  holotricha Mohrig & Menzel, 1997 N; added by Heller (2011: 174) 
  subg. Leptosciarella Tuomikoski, 1960
  fuscipalpa (Mohrig & Mamaev, 1979) N; added by Heller (2011: 174) and Menzel et al. (2011: 196
  pilosa (Staeger, 1840)
  scutellata (Staeger, 1840) N; added by Heller (2011: 174) and Menzel et al. (2011: 196
  subpilosa (Edwards, 1925) N; added by Heller (2011: 174) 
  trochanterata (Zetterstedt, 1851) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203
  viatica (Winnertz, 1867) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203
                 
  Lycoriella Frey, 1942
  subg. Coelostylina Tuomikoski, 1960
  freyi Tuomikoski, 1960 N; added by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203
  subg. Hemineurina Frey, 1942
  conspicua (Winnertz, 1867)
  inflata (Winnertz, 1867) N; added by Menzel et al. (2011: 196
  venosa (Staeger, 1840) N; added by Heller (2011: 174) 
  subg. Lycoriella Frey, 1942
  castanescens (Lengersdorf, 1940) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203
  = auripila (Winnertz, 1867): misident. sensu auct.
  = villica (Winnertz, 1867): misident. sensu auct.
  felix (Schmitz, 1919)
  ingenua (Dufour, 1839) N; omitted by De Meijere (1939b Note 13
  = fenestralis (Zetterstedt, 1838): misident. sensu Lengersdorf, 1930
  = mali (Fitch, 1856)
  lundstromi (Frey, 1948) N; added by Heller (2011: 174) 
  subterranea (Märkel, 1844)
  = vanderwieli (Schmitz, 1920)
  weberi Heller & Menzel, 2013 N; added by Heller & Menzel (2013: 345
                 
  Peyerimhoffia Kieffer, 1903 Note 14
  vagabunda (Winnertz, 1867) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203
                 
  Phytosciara Frey, 1942
                 
  Pnyxia Johannsen, 1912
  scabiei (Hopkins, 1895)
  = subterranea (Schmitz, 1913)
                 
  Prosciara Frey, 1942 Note 12
  prosciaroides (Tuomikoski, 1960) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203
  ungulata (Winnertz, 1867) N; added by Heller (2011: 175) 
                 
  Pseudolycoriella Menzel & Mohrig, 1998
  brunnea (Bukowski & Lengersdorf, 1936) N; added by Heller (2011: 175) 
  koreensis (Mohrig & Menzel, 1992) N; added by Heller (2011: 175) 
  subbruckii (Mohrig & Hövemeyer, 1992) N; added by Menzel et al. (2011: 197
                 
  Scatopsciara Edwards, 1928
  subg. Scatopsciara Edwards, 1928
  atomaria (Zetterstedt, 1851)
  = falsaria (Winnertz, 1867)
  = vivida (Winnertz, 1867)
  bucera Rudzinski, 1994 N; added by Heller (2011: 175) 
  edwardsi Freeman, 1983 N; added by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203
  fluviatiliformis Mohrig & Mamaev, 1987 N; added by Heller (2011: 175) 
  multispina (Bukowski & Lengersdorf, 1936) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203
  neglecta Menzel & Mohrig, 1991 N; added by Heller (2011: 175) and Menzel et al. (2011: 197
  pusilla (Meigen, 1818)
  vitripennis (Meigen, 1818)
  = quinquelineata (Macquart, 1834)
  = coracina (Zetterstedt, 1851)
  subg. Xenopygina Frey, 1948
  gabyae (Heller, 1998) N; added by Menzel et al. (2011: 197
  simillima (Tuomikoski, 1960) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203
  weiperti Menzel & Mohrig, 1991 N; added by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203
                 
  Schwenckfeldina Frey, 1942
  = Schwenkfeldina Frey, 1942: incorrect spelling
  carbonaria (Meigen, 1830)
                 
  Sciara Meigen, 1803
  analis Schiner, 1864
  hebes (Loew, 1869) N; synonymy by Mohrig et al. (2013: 249 Note 15
  = modesta (Winnertz, 1867)
  = mendax Tuomikoski, 1960
  = marginata Mohrig & Krivosheina, 1983: preocc.
  = ulrichi Menzel & Mohrig, 1998
  hemerobioides (Scopoli, 1763)
  = thomae (Linnaeus, 1767)
  humeralis Zetterstedt, 1851
  = armata Winnertz, 1867
  ruficauda Meigen, 1818
                 
  Trichosia Winnertz, 1867
  subg. Mouffetina Frey, 1942
  pulchricornis (Edwards, 1925) N; added by Heller (2011: 175) 
  subg. Trichosia Winnertz, 1867
  basdeni Freeman, 1983 N; added by Heller (2011: 175) 
  borealis (Frey, 1942) N; added by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203
  habilis (Johannsen, 1912) N; added as edwardsi by Heller (2011: 175)  Note 16
  = edwardsi (Lengersdorf, 1930)
  morio (Fabricius, 1794)
  = caudata (Walker, 1848)
  = longiventris (Zetterstedt, 1851)
  splendens Winnertz, 1867
  = maxima Strobl, 1880
                 
  Xylosciara Tuomikoski, 1957
  subg. Xylosciara Tuomikoski, 1957
  lignicola (Winnertz, 1867)
                 
  Zygoneura Meigen, 1831
  subg. Zygoneura Meigen, 1831
  sciarina Meigen, 1830
 
Doubtful species
 
  Corynoptera Winnertz, 1867    
  auriculata Mohrig, 1996: nomen nudum, accredited to Hippa added by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203  
 
  Sciara Meigen, 1803    
  minuta Winnertz, 1867   Note 17
  nemoralis Meigen, 1818: nomen dubium   Note 18
  pulicaria Meigen, 1818   Note 18
 
Notes
Note 1 De Meijere (1939b: 141) lists morio with lugubris as misidentification. It is highly unlikely that lugubris will be confused with the true morio (in Trichosia) but not with B. alpicola.
Note 2 Synonymy pointed out by Heller & Weber (2013: 321).
Note 3 This synonym was erroneusly omitted from the list in Menzel (2002), though it was included in the index.
Note 4 The identification of the material recorded as pallipes by Van der Wulp & De Meijere (1898: 6) could not be checked. De Meijere (1935: 224) listed this species as synonym or misidentification of B. nervosa and thus it was not included as valid species by De Meijere (1939b). This species is easily recognizable and is not likely to be confused with B. nervosa. Recent material was recorded by Mohrig (1996: 95, 203).
The synonymy of brunnipes with pallipes was pointed out by Heller (2004: 248).
Note 5 Previously published records were erroneous.
Note 6 Synonymy pointed out by Menzel & Müller (2011).
Note 7 Synonymy pointed out by Menzel & Heller (2005: 351)
Note 8 Lycoria modesta Staeger’ was listed by De Meijere (1939b: 141) probably based on a wrong interpretation of misidentifications of ’Lycoria silvatica Meigen’, that were previously referred to Sciara modesta Winnertz. The subsequent record by Lempke (1962: 108, 110) in fact represented a first record for the Netherlands but both this record and the later one by Van Rossem et al. (1970: 191) were based on the misinterpretation of modesta Staeger by Lengersdorf (1930) (see Menzel & Mohrig, 2000: 149, 406).
Note 9 Synonymy pointed out by Menzel & Heller (2006: 49).
Note 10 Sunonymy pointed out by Mohrig et al. (2013: 189).
Note 11 Systematic placement according to Menzel & Heller (2007).
Note 12 This former subgenus of Phytosciara Frey, 1942 was raised to genus level by Vilkamaa (2000).
Note 13 First recorded by Broekhuizen (1938: 124). Again added as mali by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203).
Note 14 Raised to generic level by Vilkamaa & Hippa (2005).
Note 15 Again added as marginata by Mohrig (1996: 96, 203)
Note 16 Synonymy by Mohrig et al. (2013: 257).
Note 17 Nomen dubium cf. Menzel & Mohrig (2000: 595).
Note 18 Species incerta sedes cf. Menzel & Mohrig (2000: 600).
 
The latest revisions at different levels
The family introduction was last edited on 29-08-2014 14:17
Dolichosciara was the last (sub)genus to be edited on 29-08-2014 12:17
Pseudoaptanogyna absconditus was the last (sub)species to be edited on 10-09-2014 20:58















Copyright Paul Beuk 2002-2016
White_n_Light Theme by: Smokeman
Powered by PHP-Fusion copyright © 2002 - 2019 by Nick Jones.
Released as free software without warranties under GNU Affero GPL v3.
Render time: 4.70 seconds