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FAMILY PSYCHODIDAE
Rüdiger Wagner and Paul L.Th. Beuk Version date: 21-07-2017 13:51

Diagnosis. Small, short-legged midges (less than 6.0 mm). Body covered by a dense vestiture of hairs and setae, but less so in Sycoracinae. Head with reniform eyes connected by an eye bridge (Psychodinae) or with circular eyes (other subfamilies); antennae with 14-16 segments, often adorned with single or paired ascoids; mouth parts non-functional, except in Sycoracinae (blood-sucking on amphibians and reptiles). Wings oval with 9-10 longitudinal veins and almost no cross-veins; anal area reduced; R with four (Sycoracinae, Trichomyiinae) or five branches (Psychodinae); M with three branches; wings in rest held roof-like over abdomen but flat in Sycoracinae and almost all Telmatoscopini and Pericomini. Adults of Psychodinae with hump-backed appearance because of reduced sternite 1. Male genitalia not inverted in Sycoracinae, inverted by torsion of egments 7 and 8 in Trichomyiinae, and inverted by torsion of segment 9 in Psychodinae. The rear margin of the male head in some genera of Psychodinae with permanently inverted structures (cornicula), that play a role in courtship behaviour, as well as further structures (permanently or accidentally eversible patagia and tegulae) on the male pro- and mesothorax. Some of these are covered with hairs and setae of contrasting colour, others produce pheromones. Coloration and pheromones play a decisive role in courtship behaviour. Larvae of Psychodinae are heavily sclerotized and consist of 26 or 27 body 'rings' (pseudosegments or annuli). The pattern of hairs and setae on the segments often is specific, so that the larvae of Psychodinae are determinable down to species level. Larvae of Trichomyiinae are vermiform. Larvae of Sycoracinae are very small and asselliform.

Biology. The metapneustic larvae prefer moist or aquatic environments near ponds, lakes, streams, and even in man-made habitats. Main larval requirements are food, a substratum on or in which they can move, and almost permanent contact with atmospheric oxygen. There are four larval instars. Sycoracinae are univoltine and their larvae live in moss carpets near springs and natural wetlands along streams and small unpolluted rivers. Trichomyiinae are univoltine and their larvae are restricted to dead and decaying wood, preferably of old willow and alder. In the Psychodinae most species of the Pericomini and Telmatoscopini are univoltine in Northern Europe, but in Central Europe up to two generations per year may develop, and even more in Southern Europe. Psychodini in general are polyvoltine. Larvae feed on decaying organic matter, those of Psychodini prefer the eutrophic conditions of the dung of ungulates and a few of carnivores, some are abundant even in sewage treatments works (e.g., the trickling filter fly, Psychoda (Tinearia) alternata). However, most may be classified as collectors, or micro-shredders of almost every kind of decaying organic matter in streams. There are numerous adjustments to ecological conditions in different genera or species, that enable larvae to survive even under conditions of fast flowing alpine streams. Adults are weak flyers.

General references. Chandler (1998a [classification]), Jung (1958 [Trichomyiinae]), Quate & Vockeroth (1981 [general, keys to North American genera]), Vaillant (1971, 1972a, 1972b, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1981a, and 1983 [Psychodinae, general, keys to species of adults and larvae]), Wagner (1982 [Trichomyiinae], 1990a [catalogue], 1997a [general, keys to genera], 1999 [classification]).

References to the local fauna. Boumans (2009a, 2009b, 2011), Ciliberti (2017), Ciliberti et al. (2017), Cuppen (2009), Ježek (1994, 1996), De Meijere (1935, 1939b), Mol (1984), Wagner (1990a).

How to quote this page: Wagner, R., & P.L.Th. Beuk, 2017. Family Psychodidae. In: Beuk, P.L.Th. (Ed.): Checklist of the Diptera of the Netherlands, http://www.diptera-info.nl/news.php?fam=Psychodidae (date accessed: 14/12/2018).

NL: 62, 1? UK: 72 D: 57, 1? B: 99 World: 3000
 
PSYCHODIDAE
 
PSYCHODINAE
 
  Maruinini
                 
  Tonnoiriella Vaillant, 1972
  pulchra (Eaton, 1893) added by Mol (1984: 81
 
  Pericomaini Note 1
                 
  Clytocerus Eaton, 1904
  subg. Boreoclytocerus Duckhouse, 1978
  ocellaris (Meigen, 1804)
  splendidus Ježek & Hájek, 2007 informally recorded here: http://www.dipter...d_id=47091 
                 
  Parabazarella Vaillant, 1983 Note 2
  subneglecta (Tonnoir, 1922) added by Mol (1984: 81
                 
  Pericoma Walker, 1856
  subg. Pachypericoma Vaillant, 1978
  fallax Eaton, 1893
  subg. Pericoma Walker, 1856
  diversa Tonnoir, 1919 N; added by Cuppen (2009: 7
  exquisita Eaton, 1893 added by Mol (1984: 81
  trifasciata (Meigen, 1804) added by Mol (1984: 81
                 
  Pneumia Enderlein, 1935
  = Satchelliella Vaillant, 1979
  canescens (Meigen, 1804)
  compta (Eaton, 1893)
  extricata (Eaton, 1893)
  mutua (Eaton, 1893)
  nubila (Meigen, 1818)
  palustris (Meigen, 1804)
  trivialis (Eaton, 1893)
                 
  Ulomyia Walker, 1856
  annulata (Tonnoir, 1919)
  fuliginosa (Meigen, 1804)
 
  Psychodini
                 
  Philosepedon Eaton, 1904 Note 3
  subg. Philosepedon Eaton, 1904
  humeralis (Meigen, 1818)
  perdecorum Omelková & Ježek, 2012 T; added by Omelková & Ježek (2012: 37
                 
  Psychoda Latreille, 1798
  subg. Apsycha Ježek, 2007
  pusilla Tonnoir, 1922 Note 4
  subg. Copropsychoda Vaillant, 1971 Note 5
  brevicornis Tonnoir, 1940 added by Ježek (1996: 92, 203
  subg. Logima Eaton, 1904 Note 5
  albipennis Zetterstedt, 1850
  = severini Tonnoir, 1922
  = parthenogenetica Tonnoir, 1940
  erminea Eaton, 1893 Note 6
  satchelli Quate, 1955 added by Ježek (1996: 92, 203
  sigma Kincaid, 1889 N; added as surcoufi by Boumans (2009b: 11
  = surcoufi Tonnoir, 1922 Note 7
  zetterstedti (Ježek, 1983) added by Ježek (1996: 92, 203 Note 8
  subg. Psycha Ježek, 1984 Note 5
  grisescens Tonnoir, 1922
  subg. Psychoda Latreille, 1798
  crassipenis Tonnoir, 1940 added by Ježek (1996: 92, 203 Note 9
  phalaenoides (Linnaeus, 1758)
  subg. Psychodocha Ježek, 1984 Note 5
  cinerea Banks, 1894
  gemina (Eaton, 1904) added by Wagner (1990a: 47
  subg. Psychodula Ježek, 1984 Note 5
  minuta Banks, 1894 added by Ježek (1996: 92, 203
  subg. Psychomora Ježek, 1984
  trinodulosa Tonnoir, 1922 added by Ježek (1996: 92, 203 Note 10
  subg. Tinearia Schellenberg, 1803 Note 5
  alternata (Say, 1824)
  lativentris (Berdén, 1952) added by Ježek (1996: 92, 203
  subg. Ypsychoda Ježek, 1984
  setigera Tonnoir, 1922 N; added by Boumans (2011: 59
                 
  Trichopsychoda Tonnoir, 1922
  hirtella Tonnoir, 1919 N; added by Boumans (2011: 61
 
  Telmatoscopini
                 
  Clogmia Enderlein, 1937 Note 11
  albipunctata (Williston, 1893) N; added by Boumans (2009a: 1
  rothschildi (Eaton, 1912)
                 
  Jungiella Vaillant, 1972
  = Parajungiella Vaillant, 1972
  consors (Eaton, 1893)
  longicornis (Tonnoir, 1919)
  soleata (Haliday in Walker, 1856)
                 
  Mormia Enderlein, 1935
  subg. Hemimormia Krek, 1971
  albicornis (Tonnoir, 1919)
  subg. Katamormia Ježek, 1984
  acuminata (Strobl, 1901)
  subg. Limomormia Vaillant, 1982
  = Jovamormia Ježek, 1984
  caliginosa (Eaton, 1893)
                 
  Panimerus Eaton, 1913
  albifacies (Tonnoir, 1919)
  albomaculatus (Wahlgren, 1904)
  goetghebueri (Tonnoir, 1919) added by Ciliberti et al. (2017: 63) and Ciliberti (2017: 240
  notabilis (Eaton, 1893)
                 
  Paramormia Enderlein, 1935
  = Duckhousiella Vaillant, 1972
  fratercula (Eaton, 1893)
  ustulata (Haliday in Walker, 1856)
                 
  Peripsychoda Enderlein, 1935
  auriculata (Haliday in Curtis, 1839)
  fusca (Macquart, 1826)
                 
  Seoda Enderlein, 1935 Note 12
  = Telmatoscopus Eaton, 1904: sensu auct.
  ambigua (Eaton, 1893) added by Ciliberti et al. (2017: 64
  morula (Eaton, 1893)
  schlitzensis (1975, 1893) added by Ciliberti et al. (2017: 64
  similis Tonnoir, 1922
 
SYCORACINAE
 
TRICHOMYIINAE
                 
  Trichomyia Curtis, 1839
  urbica Haliday in Curtis, 1839
 
Doubtful species
 
  Mormia Enderlein, 1935    
  subg. Limomormia Vaillant, 1982  
  furva (Tonnoir, 1940)   Note 13
 
Deleted species
 
  Clogmia Enderlein, 1937  
  tristis (Meigen, 1830)   Note 14
 
Notes
Note 1 The previously used name Pericomini is preoccupied by the Dermapteran subfamily Pericominae (derives from the genus Pericomus). The use of Pericomaini as an alternate spelling follows Sabrosky (1999).
Note 2 Former subgenus of Bazarella Vaillant, 1960, raised to generic level by Ježek (2001).
Note 3 Source of changed placement from Telmatoscopini to Psychodini still needs to be added.
Note 4 Placement in subgenus Apsycha following Boumans (2011).
Note 5 Treated as subgenus of Psychoda following Boumans (2011).
Note 6 Year of description 1998 as used by Wagner & Beuk (2002a) corrected to 1893 (see Bouwmans, 2011).
Note 7 The synonymy was already established by Withers (1988) but who neglected to apply the rules of priority.
Note 8 According to Boumans (2011) zetterstedti resembles satchelli very closely and might even prove to be synonymous.
Note 9 Spelling of species crassipennis as used by Wagner & Beuk (2002a) corrected to crassipenis (see Bouwmans, 2011).
Note 10 Placement in subgenus Psychomora following Boumans (2011).
Note 11 Use of genus author Ježek, 1983 as used by Wagner & Beuk(2002a corrected to Enderlein, 1937 (see Bouwmans, 2009a).
Note 12 Nomenclatorial issues surrounding Telmatoscopus and Seoda were discussed by Kvifte (2014).
Note 13 Listed for the Netherlands by Ježek et al. (2012: 122) in the distribution of the species but the record for the Netherlands could not be traced back to any of the references given.
Note 14 After earlier records this species was deleted by De Meijere (1935: 225) and not included in De Meijere (1939b).
 
The latest revisions at different levels
The family introduction was last edited on 21-07-2017 13:51
Sycoracidae was the last (sub)family to be edited on 28-01-2014 17:20
Maruinini was the last tribe to be edited on 11-07-2016 11:44
Tonnoiriella was the last (sub)genus to be edited on 11-07-2016 11:48
Panimerus goetghebueri was the last (sub)species to be edited on 21-07-2017 13:49















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