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Theo Zeegers Version date: 01-01-2002 01:00

Diagnosis. Large flies; body densely haired (honeybee- or bumblebee-mimics) and without setae. Head with very small antennae; mouth parts strongly reduced; clypeus broadened, shield-like. Wings with large calyptrae; M bent forward; top cell open. Thorax with distinctly swollen postscutellum; hypopleura with longer setae. Females with a long, retractable ovipositor. Hypodermatidae are sometimes treated as a subfamily within the Oestridae (sensu lato).

Biology. Hypodermatidae are obligatory parasites of mammals, especially Artiodactyli. Most species are specialised on one or a few host species. They are oviparous; the female deposits her eggs on the skin of the host. First instar larvae bore into the host. Second and third instar larvae accumulate on the host's back and form large warbles. Full-grown larvae leave the host through the skin and pupate in the ground. The adults do not feed and are quite inactive most of the time. They can be found basking on the ground or on leaves, females can be found near cattle. Species on livestock are of economic importance and have been successfully exterminated in the last 80 years.

General references. Draber-Monko (1978 [keys to all stages]), Grunin (1969 [keys to all stages, biology]), Minář (2000d [general]), Séguy (1928 [keys to imagines]), Soós & Minář (1986c [catalogue]), Zeegers (1992 [catalogue]).

References to the local fauna. Van Aartsen & Zeegers (1992), Jansen Jr (1970), Zeegers (1992).

How to quote this page: Zeegers, Th., 2001. Family Hypodermatidae. In: Beuk, P.L.Th. (Ed.): Checklist of the Diptera of the Netherlands, https://diptera-info.nl/news.php?fam=Hypodermatidae (date accessed: 27/01/2022).

NL: 3, 1I UK: 0 D: 3, 1I B: 3 World: 32
  Hypoderma Latreille, 1818
  bovis (Linnaeus, 1758)
  diana Brauer, 1858
  lineatum (de Villers, 1789)
  Oedemagena Latreille, 1818
  tarandi (Linnaeus, 1758) I; added by Jansen (1970: 222 Note 1
Note 1 This species was collected from imported Musk Ox (Ovibos moschatus [Zimmermann, 1780]).

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